DEHUMIDIFICATION APPLICATIONSDEHUMIDIFICATION SERVICESDEHUMIDIFICATION PRODUCTS


 

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Determining Moisture Loads or Latent Loads

Moisture load can come from many sources, which provide the data needed to calculate the total latent load on any air conditioning or drying system. The total latent load equals the sum of applicable individual loads.

Outside design level: Bry-Air Dehumidifier performance characteristics are expressed in terms of specific humidity or grains per pound of air. To determine the outside design moisture level, use the standard design dry-bulb and wet-bulb conditions because this value measures the design total heat (wet-bulb) occurring with the highest practical dry-bulb. The design moisture level will exist when a lower dry-bulb occurs with the design wet­bulb. This condition represents the same total heat, but a higher specific humidity. The table below lists the recommended design specific humidity for various design wet-bulb temperatures. Use the standard accepted design wet-bulb for your locality.

Example: If the accepted design level for your city is 95°db (dry-bulb temperature) and 76°wb (wet-bulb temperature), this condition equals 104 grs/lb. But there will be many days when 76°wb will occur at a lower dry-bulb temperature. From the table below, the proper design specific humidity for comfort would be 115 grs/lb; for industrial work it would be 125 grs/lb. Figures below assume that these levels will be reached or exceeded on 30% of summer days for comfort work and 10% of days for process work.

Ventilation latent load: Determine the latent load equivalent to the outside air by subtracting the indoor or maintained specific humidity from the outdoor specific humidity and multiplying that amount by the pounds of outside air brought into the system.

EXAMPLE: If 1,000 cfm ventilation air is at 125 grs/lb. design and the design inside condition is 70 grs/lb., what is the ventilation latent load?

1000 x (125 - 70) = 3930 gr/min or 235,800 gr/hr. 
  14

The average density of air is given as 14 cu. ft. per pound of air and is used regardless of the actual density at design conditions.

Recommended Design Outside Moisture Level

Design Outside
Wet Bulb
Design Specific Humidity
Comfort Work Process Work
F (grs/lb) (grs/lb)
81° 139 149
80° 130 143
79° 125 139
78° 120 134
77° 118 130
76° 115 125
75° 112 121
74° 108 117
73° 105 113
72° 100 109
71° 95 106
70° 90 102

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Latent Heat Dissipated by Adult Occupants

Dry Bulb
Temperature
Occupants
At Rest
Occupants Doing Light
Physical Exertion *
Occupant Doing Heavy
Physical Exertion **
F (grs/hr) (grs/hr) (grs/hr)
60° 400 1300 1960
65° 530 1630 2400
70° 670 2060 2920
75° 900 2540 3450
80° 1180 3040 3950
85° 1525 3550 4450
90° 1870 4000 5000

 

* Examples - Waiters, dinner dancing, light factory assembly work
**Examples - Factory machine operator, continuous dancing

Evaporation from a wetted surface: Determine the amount of moisture evaporation from a pan, tank or other wetted surface into a space using the following calculations:
Where:
Gr. = moisture evaporated in grs/hr.
Vel = air velocity in F.P.M.
VL = vapor pressure equivalent to temperature of surface water - inches of mercury.
VA = vapor pressure equivalent to dew point temperature of air over surface - inches of mercury.

If air is moving across surface: Gr. = 650 x ( 1 + Vel
230
) x (VL- VA) x (sq ft of surface)
If air is impacting surface: Gr. = 1350 x ( 1 + Vel
250
) x (VL- VA) x (sq ft of surface)

Vapor Pressures of Water

Temperature Degrees
F
Vapor Pressure
Inches Mercury
Temperature
Degrees F
Vapor Pressure
Inches Mercury
Temperature
Degrees F
Vapor Pressure Inches
Mercury
30 0.1663 65 0.6222 100 1.933
35 0.2035 70 0.7392 110 2.60
40 0.2478 75 0.8750 120 3.45
45 0.3004 80 1.032 130 4.53
50 0.3626 85 1.213 140 5.88
55 0.4359 90 1.422 150 7.57
60 0.5218 95 1.660 160 9.65

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Miscellaneous Moisture Loads

Description:
Food (Per meal)
Steam Table (per sq It top)
Coffee Urn, 3 gal. steam or electric
Coffee Urn, 3 gal. gas
Coffee Urn, 5 gal. steam or electric
Coffee Urn, 5 gal. gas
Hair Dryer, electric, per helmet
Hair Dryer, gas, per helmet
Unvented gas burners (nat. or mfg. gas) per 1000 Btu. input
Load Grs/Hr:
200
2,000
10,000
15,000
17,000
26,000
2,700
4,000
650

Moisture permeation. This is discussed in detail in Part Four beginning on page 8.
Moisture loads in the table above represent unvented appliances. Although personal judgment is used to determine vent or hood efficiency, the hood efficiency should never be higher than 50%.

Drying hygroscopic materials. The calculations shown above apply only to evaporation of free water from a surface. When hygroscopic materials are in the first stages of drying-when the surface is actually wet¬then the above relationship may exist. But after surface drying is complete, further drying will occur at a rate that depends on the rate of diffusion within the material; the rate varies with the degree of dryness within the material and is based on expected structural changes that occur during the drying process.

Establish the drying rate of hygroscopic materials in order to establish the hourly moisture load. Unfortunately these rates must be determined experimentally in each situation.

Usually, the desired outcome with hygroscopic drying is to improve drying rate or degree of dryness in the final product within an existing set up or with the addition of a dehumidifier. In doing so, the desired drying period is generally included with the total weight of material to be handled.

Average drying rate = Wt. of material entering minus
Wt. of material leaving
Drying time (hrs)

One caution here: the drying period cannot be arbitrarily assumed; it must be realistic. For example, if dry air circulates in a dehumidifier and cannot dry a material to totally dry within 2 hours, and then 2 hours will be neither a possible nor a realistic desired drying time.

Storage of hygroscopic materials. When hygroscopic materials enter a dry storage space, even for a short time, they contribute a moisture load that must be absorbed by the dehumidifier. The table below lists the moisture holding capacity of various materials in equilibrium with air at the relative humidities shown. The percentages compare the moisture to the substance's totally dry weight.

If the incoming material has unknown moisture content, assume that it is in equilibrium with 60% RHair. In winter, the materials will likely come into a room in equilibrium with 90% RHair. However, in winter most other sources of rh are lower, so the summer figure (60%) can be used all year, unless the product loads makes up most of the entire total and the permeation load is minor by comparison.

Regain of Hygroscopic Materials

Moisture Content Expressed in Percent of Dry Weight of the Substance at Various Relative Humidities - Temperature, 75°F.

Classification Material Description Relative Humidity - Per Cent Authority
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Natural
Textile
Fibers
Cotton Sea island - roving 2.5 3.7 4.6 5.5 6.6 7.9 9.5 11.5 14.1 Hartshorne
Cotton American - cloth 2.6 3.7 4.4 5.2 5.9 6.8 8.1 10.0 14.3 Schloesing
Cotton Absorbent 4.8 9.0 12.5 15.7 18.5 20.8 22.8 24.3 25.8 Fuwa
Wool Australian merino-skein 4.7 7.0 8.9 10.8 12.8 14.9 17.2 19.9 23.4 Hartshorne
Silk Raw chevennes - skein 3.2 5.5 6.9 8.0 8.9 10.2 11.9 14.3 18.8 Schloesing
Linen Table cloth 1.9 2.9 3.6 4.3 5.1 6.1 7.0 8.4 10.2 Atkinson
Linen Dry spun - yarn 3.6 5.4 6.5 7.3 8.1 8.9 9.8 11.2 13.8 Sommer
Jute Avg. of severalgrades 3.1 5.2 6.9 8.5 10.2 12.2 14.4 17.1 20.2 Storch
Hemp Manila & sisal - rope 2.7 4.7 6.0 7.2 8.5 9.9 11.6 13.6 15.7 Fuwa
Rayon Viscous
Nitrocellulose
Cupramonium
Average skein 4.0 5.7 6.8 7.9 9.2 10.8 12.4 14.2 16.0 Robertson
Cellulose
Acetate
Fiber 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.9 2.4 3.0 3.6 4.3 5.3 Robertson
Paper M.F.Newsprint Wood pulp - 24% ash 2.1 3.2 4.0 4.7 5.3 6.1 7.2 8.7 10.6 U.S.B. of S.
H.M.FWriting Wood pulp - 3% ash 3.0 4.2 5.2 6.2 7.2 8.3 9.9 11.9 14.2 U.S.B. of S.
White Bond Rag -1% ash 2.4 3.7 4.7 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.8 10.8 13.2 U.S.B. of S.
Com. Ledger 75% rag - 1% ash 3.2 4.2 5.0 5.6 6.2 6.9 8.1 10.3 13.9 U.S.B. of S.
Kraft Wrapping Coniferous 3.2 4.6 5.7 6.6 7.6 8.9 10.5 12.6 14.9 U.S.B. of S.
Misc.
Organic
Materials
Leather Sole oak - tanned 5.0 8.5 11.2 13.6 16.0 18.3 20.6 24.0 29.2 Phelps
Catgut Racquet strings 4.6 7.2 8.6 10.2 12.0 14.3 17.3 19.8 21.7 Fuwa
Glue Hide 3.4 4.8 5.8 6.6 7.6 9.0 10.7 11.8 12.5 Fuwa
Rubber Solid Tire 0.11 0.21 0.32 0.44 0.54 0.66 0.76 0.88 0.99 Fuwa
Wood Timber (average) 3.0 4.4 5.9 7.6 9.3 11.3 14.0 17.5 22.0 Forest P.Lab.
Soap White 1.9 3.8 5.7 7.6 10.0 12.9 16.1 19.8 23.8 Fuwa
Tobacco Cigarette 5.4 8.6 11.0 13.3 16.0 19.5 25.0 33.5 50.0 Ford
Food-
stuffs
White Bread   0.5 1.7 3.1 4.5 6.2 8.5 11.1 14.5 19.0 Atkinson
Crackers   2.1 2.8 3.3 3.9 5.0 6.5 8.3 10.9 14.9 Atkinson
Macaroni   5.1 7.4 8.8 10.2 11.7 13.7 16.2 19.0 22.1 Atkinson
Flour   2.6 4.1 5.3 6.5 8.0 9.9 12.4 15.4 19.1 Bailey
Starch   2.2 3.8 5.2 6.4 7.4 8.3 9.2 10.6 12.7 Atkinson
Gelatin   0.7 1.6 2.8 3.8 4.9 6.1 7.6 9.3 11.4 Atkinson
Misc.
Inorganic
Materials
Asbestos Fiber Finely divided 0.16 0.24 0.26 0.32 0.41 0.51 0.62 073 0.84 Fuwa
Silica Gel   5.7 9.8 12.7 15.2 17.2 18.8 20.2 21.5 22.6 Fuwa
Domestic Coke   0.20 0.40 0.61 0.81 1.03 1.24 1.46 1.67 1.89 Selvig
Activated
Charcoal
Steam activated 7.1 14.3 22.8 26.2 128.3 29.2 30.0 31.1 32.7 Fuwa
Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 33.0 41.0 47.5 52.5 57.0 61.5 67.0 73.5 82.5 Mason

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